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This book invokes modern forms of perception and communication that were emerging in film and the illustrated press. A dizzying variety of photographs from popular and scientific periodicals reformulate the book as a city and its pages as streets.
Its eye-catching abstract markers, oversized page numbers, and bold keywords guide us through like traffic signs.
In Malerei Photographie Film, photography and text work together to train its viewers to interact productively with the stimulation of the modern world.
This introductory look at the photographic books of Molzahn and Moholy reveals the replacement of text with photographs was not what they had in mind.
But not all Weimar photographic books are as typographically dynamic. A text of two to ten pages, written by the photographer, editor, or a commissioned author, appears at the beginning of most photographic books, followed by a photographic sequence of fifty to one hundred pages.
But scholars have rarely considered how these texts shape the meaning of the photographs that follow. If the meaning of the photographic series remains in the realm of the visual, beyond the capabilities of language to express, then photographic meaning must function outside the realm of textual control.
My approach resists arguing that photographic sequences substitute for text and thereby relay narratives or arguments. In contrast to this approach, I explore how Weimar photographic books sought to provide perceptual experiences unique to the visual realm.
However, this does not mean photography functions in isolation from other forms of communication. Complex interactions between text and image shape many photographic books.
These books were collaborative projects, involving other authors besides the photographer themselves.
A number of books collect the work of multiple photographers. Moholy produced only a handful of the images that appear in Malerei Photographie Film, yet his theory of photographic perception guides their selection and arrangement.
While Nierendorf and Glaser were deeply invested in the photographers and the presentation of their work, publishers arranged other partnerships between writers and photographers.
But it should be noted that the gender of these contributors was not diverse. Despite the proliferation of female photographers during the Weimar Republic, few of them produced photographic books.
Many Weimar photographic books address political, social, and cultural topics. Yet an evaluation of content depends on a thorough understanding of the medium in which that content is represented.
While literary scholars have privileged the narrative aspects of the photographic book, art historians have analyzed their images without much consideration for their original sequence.
Many photographs now considered classic examples of Weimar photography were initially part of a sequence within a book, but little attention has been given to their interaction with text and other photographs.
As part of its analysis of Weimar photographic books, this study recasts the photographic medium as a product of dialogues and relations between disparate formats.
Photographic books are products of dialogs between images and between texts and photographic sequences. They also relate to the compositions of illustrated magazines, advertisements, archives, motion pictures, and other discursive spaces of photography that were reconfiguring ways of seeing and reading at this time.
While discussing photographic books, Weimar writers often compared them to other media, such as film and the illustrated press.
Weimar photographers and theorists considered their time as a period of media transition, during which photographic technology had developed to such a degree that it seemed to disrupt the communicative and cultural roles that other, more traditional media were assigned.
After the development of halftone printing at the turn of the century, which allowed photographs and text to be reproduced side-by-side, the number of photographs in newspapers, magazines, and books increased dramatically.
Images of famous contemporaries, photographs of boxers, horse races, domestic and foreign abnormalities join in the parade. The photographers, editors, and essayists that frame their meaning sought to reinvent the medium as a way of developing the visual skills of its modern audience.
This study thus recognizes the ambivalence of photographic practices at this time. Photographers embraced the layout and sequencing of images within the illustrated press while also realizing the potential of this format remained unfulfilled.
An essay in the popular periodical Uhu from exemplifies one form of modern visual practices in which photographic books intervened. Are you a good observer?
Which one of these is the mirror image? Consumers of the illustrated press were being conditioned to think on their feet and constantly search for more stimulation.
What is being trained here is the impulse and the desire to sustain a coherent space of perception that at once overcomes and depends on a world of fragmentation, shock, and simultaneity.
Some photographic books aimed to help viewers adapt to the stimulation of the metropolis. Others sought to recuperate visual experiences obscured by the prevalence of photography in the illustrated press.
Sind Sie ein guter Beobachter? Uhu 2, no. One of the most prevalent aims of Weimar photographic books was to teach their audience various strategies of photographic meaning.
By learning these strategies, their audience would be better prepared for a future in which the photograph would be the main building block of communication.
It describes how the photographs make meaning but rarely addresses the content of the photographs directly.
Those who contributed to these books assumed their audience was not yet proficient in these skills. Weimar photographic books thus mark a moment of transition in which an imagined future of photographic communication was yet to occur.
Although in dialog with text, the photographic books I discuss declare the potential of a photographic sequence to establish meaning based on visual experiences and associations.
They also declare this form of meaning was definitively modern. By way of introduction, I want to explore how Weimar photographic books mediate these debates.
To answer this question, scholars have looked to stylistic features of modern visual media as demonstrations of the conditions of modern visual experiences.
For example, Tom Gunning has argued that early twentieth-century film imitates and competes with the aggressive shocks and distractions of modern life.
Walter Benjamin associated modern vision with the distracted experience of the metropolis. He argued the bombardment of visual stimuli in the modern environment led to the predominance of fragmented and incoherent perceptual encounters, as opposed to more contemplative and coherent visual experiences that supposedly characterized a premodern world.
As I explore in this study, signs of historical coherence and unity were becoming increasingly difficult to identify during the Weimar Republic.
Such concerns caution us to be weary of assuming a direct temporal correlation between visual practices and aesthetic form. In their attempt to establish a coherent system of visual meaning, Weimar photographic books reveal a crisis of legibility that was a defining aspect of modern life.
According to David Bordwell, it is more plausible to consider modern vision as a group of visual skills, while also admitting that these skills are instilled unevenly across a population.
While this debate most often occurs in the realm of film studies, Weimar photographic books require us to bridge a gap between the study of film and photography that remains too wide among scholars today.
This study proposes a related discourse of modern vision, one in which the eye is trained to recognize meaning in the absence of textual guidance.
They are not modern in the sense they mimic the experiences of film and modernity. I do not believe photographic books sought to imitate the incoherent, fragmented nature of modern life.
Rather, Weimar photographic books were inspired by the potential of modernity and called for utopian outcomes.
In this way, this study defines modern vision as something imagined but never achieved. Whether or not modernity was capable of transforming visual skills and habits, artists central to this study and to the theorization of modern photography thought that it was, and this belief motivated their interest in the photographic book.
A belief in the potential of new media is what makes Weimar photographic books an important contribution to modernism. Because of its associations with knowledge and its position in between the boundaries of still photography and cinematic motion, photographers saw the book as an ideal place to interrogate how modernity was changing cognitive practices.
My argument challenges the still widespread belief that modern artistic conceptions of old and new were rigid and oppositional.
In contrast, photographic books are hybrid media, functioning in between stillness and motion, new and old, past and present. This hybridity is the mark of their radical yet unrealized potential to establish modern vision.
Given that it was one hundred years old, references to photography as a new language and a new media during the Weimar Republic warrant the following questions: What does it mean to be described as new media?
Why can photography still be talked about as new in the s? Instead, the appropriate question might be: What does a culture or discourse gain, what values are placed on a medium, by describing it as new?
The bookseller sells less. Many newspapers replace essays with arrangements of key words. To this we prefer the illustrated press.
Images instruct faster and better. A page of images can be grasped in an instant. Therefore, we shall distance ourselves from the book.
Rather than abandoning the book, those that declared its form to be out of touch with the synchronicity and stimulation of the modern world sought to update it.
The issue in which the article appeared addressed the future of books in the face of photography, film, and the illustrated press. The card-file, register book, and the binder offer alternatives based on the storage of information.
The collaboration, rather than contestation, between the book and photographic technology marks the Weimar Republic as a period of transition.
In the case of the photographic book, photographic media such as film and the illustrated newspaper intertwine with the book. The photographic book emerges as an experimental product of this moment of transition, a dialog between old and new.
Yet I would argue the s should be considered an equally significant rebirth of the medium, a period in which photography is radically redefined in terms of the visual practices of modernity.
They argue that new media must first learn preestablished codes of communication. Then new media eventually distinguish themselves from these codes by resisting dominant and established languages.
The photographic sequence arranged in the book served as the format in which photography distinguished itself from the established conventions of textual meaning.
It addresses a moment of media history by studying the way photographic books attempt to shape particular modes and habits of perception.
But I do not consider this moment to be on an evolutionary track that ends in a future moment of photographic literacy. Nonetheless, photographic books are traces of what was considered possible during the Weimar Republic.
They can be considered as part of an historical rupture, defining what contemporary viewers were not yet ready for and preparing them for a future that never occurred.
In , Benjamin might have already realized that photography would not replace text, as Moholy and others predicted, but collaborate with it.
Nonetheless, I believe it is crucial to recuperate this ambition as an alternative to scholarly approaches that limit photographic meaning to the construction of arguments in a rhetorical form.
One goal of this book is to expand upon this restricted conception of photographic meaning. To this end, I focus on books that articulate specific claims for the potential of photography to offer new visual experiences.
I did not select these books because they are considered fine art publications today although several of them are. They announce an alternative to the limitation of photographic meaning to the conventions of text.
These books have the didactic goal of acclimating their audiences to the perceptual conditions of the modern world. Due to the integration of text, photography, and typographic design in these books, they stand apart from the others that organize this study.
Moholy adopted the book-format as a way to train viewers to respond more efficiently to the visual stimulation of the modern world.
Here Comes the New Photographer! Outcries of photo-inflation were partly a response to the growing popularity of photographic books, referring to the staggering quantity of photographs within them.
But it also referred to the inflated value given to the objects, animals, people, and places they reproduced.
It collects photographs of an overwhelming variety of subjects: cobblestone pavement, church spires, monkeys, cacti, cooking pots, and many others.
Close-ups and radical camera angles pare down objects to spirals, grids, and other abstract forms. The visual realm of photography was able to bring the past and present into alignment, thereby challenging notions of linear, chronological progress.
While the photographs aim to collapse the distance between various historical time periods, the circumstances surrounding the publication of Urformen der Kunst are also strikingly anachronistic.
Despite this reputation, most of the photographs included in this volume were taken in the s. Urformen der Kunst appealed to cultural critics in search of continuity and stability at a moment when technology and modern life were reconfiguring traditional concepts of time.
Yet to critical theorists like Walter Benjamin, the book inspired a radical conception of the relationship between history and modernity. After working for fifteen years as a cameraman in the German film industry, Lerski published this photographic book in This chapter explores how the temporal experience of paging through the book complicates the legibility of the face and forces us to modify our understanding of physiognomic practices during the Weimar Republic.
Yet the faces also attempt to form a collective representation of Weimar society that creates a sense of progression and flow.
The brief conclusion considers the afterlife of the Weimar photographic book and whether its employment at the hands of the Third Reich is the appropriate place in which to end a study of Weimar photographic possibility.
Scholars have debated the existence of a distinctly modern form of vision and have declared the need for a more precise definition of the changes in visual experiences that took place in the early twentieth century.
Although it is unlikely photography altered the biological capacity of human vision during this time, it provided the potential for new visual habits to be developed and for lost visual skills to be revived.
Photographic books articulated various forms of modern vision in the Weimar period, testifying to the multivalence of the photographic medium and to why the photographic book remains a compelling format for artists and photographers today.
According to Moholy, the growing prominence of photography and film in mass culture could provide a new form of communication to match the pace of modern life.
Development will overcome this phase, and photographs will replace text as individual, interpretable concepts and expressions.
One could say that the application of photography must lead in a short time to the replacement of an important part of literature by film. Scholars have frequently pointed to such statements by Moholy as evidence of the replacement of text with photography during the Weimar Republic.
Yet the prophetic nature of his words has been overlooked. Moholy marks his time as a period of development toward a future shaped by an imagined, yet never fully realized, autonomy of visual meaning.
In this passage, Moholy defines the present as a moment of media transition, one in which the proliferation of photography and film foreshadows the eventual obsolescence of text and literature.
It implies that Moholy sees the formulation and demonstration of his theories on modern vision as a way of training his audience for what will come.
In the s, a number of photographers turned to the book format to both explain and approximate what they conceived of as New Vision.
Conceived as treatises but also as forms of training, these books have a didactic purpose. What will be explored here is why the book was considered a productive format for simulating and explicating the conditions of modern vision.
In these cases, the book allows for the approximation of cognitive and perceptual experiences that photographers and theorists associated with modernity.
Rather than emphasizing the more permanent, structured space of the book, Moholy aligned the project with the ephemeral, fleeting reading material of the modern city.
An advertisement from prices the book at 7 marks, which would have been quite reasonable to middle class consumers, the target audience of most illustrated magazines produced at this time.
A passionate book. A book that seems to get out of control. Behne was aware that these issues were changing the way illustrated publications conveyed their information to the public.
A loose balancing of images attempts to create various elements of form, details, contents, slants, black-white effects, size, image contrast, running parallels or movement that thrusts through the field.
The challenge was to create connections between various parts of the visual field. Pages were no longer organized into stable columns and quadrants, and the objective was now to move the eye through the entire field to create a stimulating and also fluid design in order to catch, direct, and retain the attention of consumers.
Bauhaus- Archiv, Berlin. Several of the essays printed at the beginning of the book had already been published elsewhere. Rather than employing them as illustrations, Moholy relies on these photographs as the raw material of his artistic practice.
More than an indirect explanation of modern artistic practice, Malerei Photographie Film is the product of that artistic practice. According to Moholy, this instinct can be revived, even trained, by immersing oneself in the enormous amount of photographic material being produced in illustrated magazines and books.
At the same time that he implies his interest in the photographs of the illustrated press, Moholy expresses his dissatisfaction with limiting the use of photography to practices of sheer accumulation or the illustration of subjects seen with the naked eye.
We want to systematically produce what is for life the creation of new relationships of importance. Malerei Photographie Film aims to intensify the conditions that Behne describes, training the observer to stay alert and ready to respond to new and thrilling visual information that incessantly arises.
In the first section of the book, Moholy resolves that our eyes can no longer be a reliable source of perception. In an unabashedly technophilic tone, he declares the human body and especially the human eyes to be ill-suited for direct interaction with the quick pace and simultaneity of the modern world.
These new conditions of perception demand photography be used as a supplement to our own inadequate and atrophied visual facilities. Beyond its reproduction of a subject, a photograph is a perceptual model that induces particular sensations, stimuli, and responses.
Because photography stands in opposition to conventional vision, showing us that which is unfamiliar to our eyes, it offers a chance for perception in its purest and most immediate form, freed completely from associations with the past.
The visual apparatus is not assumed to be the binocular faculties of the individual spectator, but rather the monocular lens of the camera, which constructs an unsettling and even traumatic relationship between the viewer and the object viewed through distortions in scale, size and overall appearance.
Photography provides for the improvement of human sensory capacities by introducing the viewer to new forms of stimulus and by forcing a confrontation with unknown information.
Yet, read how Moholy conceives of this improvement taking place: One can say that the assemblage of man lies in the synthesis of all his functional-apparatus, i.
The entire system of activity depends on the perfection of the sensory organs, which attempts to create new connections between optic, acoustic and other functional phenomenon and forces the integration of the functionalapparatus.
The sequence presents views and suggests connections to which Moholy expected his audience in the s to be unaccustomed, a Weltanschauung determined by the productive possibilities of photography and not yet assimilable through association or memory.
The images are printed on both the verso and recto of the pages, which sets up a series of pairs, as well as a continuous confrontation with visual information.
Moholy has kept some groups bunched together, but others are scattered throughout. Moments of faint recognition arise during which photographs vaguely reference earlier ones.
Mabuse der Spieler on page 81 echoes the X-ray of hands arranged around the periphery of the image like hands on a Ouija board on page Yet other subjects, other thoughts that lie in between, disturb these connections between images, hindering our ability to remember what we just saw several pages back.
This instinctive response opposes a form of understanding based on memory and experience. The photographs expose us to recondite visual information and, accordingly, strive to improve our perceptual capacity.
The first two pairs of images in the book demonstrate the distinction between reproductive and productive photography.
On the left is a photograph of Paris by Alfred Stieglitz taken in The photographer becomes painter. After the brilliant period of the daguerreotype, photographers tried to imitate all directions, styles, and appearances of painting.
It took approximately years for it [photography] to come into its own possibility of application. We flip the page to find the theme of flight continued by a flock of cranes on the left and a squadron of seaplanes on the right.
But in this pair, the rules of perspective are abandoned; the visual field is tilted from the upright plane to the unanchored field of the blank, grey sky.
These views are stripped of any indication of depth or scale. As on many pages in the book, the photographs are reproduced vertically and horizontally, which forces the viewer to turn the book to recognize the content.
But Moholy expects his viewers to be unable to assimilate them to familiar conventions of representation. A ready-made poster. Although a brief label identifying what is shown accompanies almost every image, it implies the subject of the photograph is not always clear.
For example, the aerial view of St. The relationship between text and image indicates a difference in the two forms of communication.
The text describes and supports that experience. Before the sequence begins, two facing pages make the reader aware of the book as a constructed perceptual experience.
A thick, vertical line runs next to the gutter on the page on the right, and the text appears at the top and bottom, leaving the middle of the page blank.
This layout creates a suspenseful pause; the left page is blank except for a massive dot in the lower right that emphatically ends the text that came before.
The stark bareness of these pages hangs like a stage curtain that will be lifted when we turn the page. A photograph by Charlotte Rudolf of the dancer Gret Palucca in mid-leap is coupled with an image of a motorcyclist racing around a corner.
This pair of images shows us motion not as our eyes see it, which would look something like an illegible blur, but as the camera captures it.
Nonetheless, these photographs externalize and break up time experienced with our own eyes and replace it with a temporality that can only be formed in the photograph.
The temporal instant of the photograph has been understood as the basis for the paradoxical experience of time in the age of photography and film.
He defines this condition as a paradox, for there is no truly instantaneous photograph but only the asymptotic movement toward an indivisibly small measure of time.
Each moment of exposure, however instantaneous, always defines a duration, and thus the difference between instant and duration is entirely arbitrary, the one dissolving into the other.
The snapshot demonstrates a movement in time that depends on the aid of the camera. Moholy uses the photographic series in the book to reinforce the paradoxical temporality of photography.
Placing a photograph within a series emphasizes its status as part within a whole, as instant within the overall temporal experience of flipping through the book.
Yet the sequence of discontinuous instances in the book does not relate to the continuous flow of real time, to the experience and perception of time as duration.
Several pages after the pairing of dancer and motorcyclist, an image shows the movement of street traffic across the picture plane, along with glows emanating from street lamps and other stationary sources.
As in the earlier snapshots, this image complicates the difference between instant and duration. The split-second depiction of traffic is also a record of continual motion, of light moving through space over a period of time.
Inversely, the luminous glows appear like instant bursts of light from flash photography. As we move through the next few pages, the theme of light continues.
From the eternity of the astral to the lightning flash, the subjects of the photographs grow increasingly ephemeral. These telescopic enlargements reveal imagery inaccessible to the human eye.
Light is obviously fundamental to photography, part of the word itself. However, it appears entirely different in a photograph than it does to the naked eye.
These images are moments of split-second exposure, preserving an instant barely visible to the naked eye. The dramatic contrasts of dark and light and the changing formal patterns in this sequence evoke the intense visual experience of a lightning storm, but this series of images also suggests a filmstrip, time created through a series of punctuated events.
Malerei Photographie Film is filled with such temporal and spatial reconfigurations. Two photographs near the middle of the book show the perception of space through mirrored spheres.
Toward the end of the book, three strips of film display the creation of motion through the representation of successive instants.
Vacillating between the two poles of instant and duration, the rhythm of paging through the book is jerky, caused by successive lags and restarts, drifts and commanding pulls, focusing, indifference, and refocusing.
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Galonnier ed. Nota bene 5 : Indeed, one observes a similarity between the Alcuin inventory and that of the catalogue of Augia insula Reichenau Island of the year , in which is found the first known mention of a copy of Boethii De institutione musica libri quinque ; Paul Lehmann ed.
Munich, , p. The Carolingians and the written word. Cambridge UK , , p. Nota bene 6 : Albeit, without denying the pertinence of this hypothesis, assuredly worthy of attention, the question, for the moment, remains open while awaiting more precise research on the subject; cf.
Rosamond McKitterick, Ibid. Die Kultur der Abtei Reichenau. Illo Humphrey. VIII, p. Mathiesen: Nr. VI Nr.
Amalarius is the author of 17 known treatises on liturgy, that is to say the science of the order, and all the component parts, of worship services , 6 of the 17 treatises were lost at an early date.
Here is the catalogue and chronology of his liturgical works according to A. Cabaniss, Amalarius of Metz.
Amsterdam, , p. Amalarius was, so it seems at one period, the Bishop of Metz, and was indeed the Archbishop of Trier ca.
Migne, ed. Vaticano, I. Hanssens, ed. II, p. VIII, , p. XI, , p. Manitius, Geschichte der lateinischen Literatur. Paris, , Vol. Laistner, Thought and Letters in Western Europe a.
London, , p. Samaran et Robert Marichal eds. IV Commentary, p. Chapter 2: Boethius and Amalarius Symphosius Metensis.
Apuleius Lucius. Paulus Thomas, Leipzig Teubner Verlag , , cf. De Platone et eius dogmate. Liber I, , p. Beaujeu, ed.
Paris Les Belles Lettres , , p. Henry Marcan, The Harmonics of Aristoxenus. English , Oxford, , Hildesheim , p. Laloy L.
VI, Nr. II,7: 24, II,8: 25, ed. Boethius Anicius Manlius Torquatus Severinus. De institutione arithmetica libri duo.
Prologus end , I,1, I,2, I, 7; II,2, II,41, II,54; cf. Friedlein , Boethius De institutione arithmetica.
Leipzig, , pages ; J. Patrologia Latina. Paris Belles Lettres , ; H. Oosthout et I. Turnhout Brepols , ; Thesaurus Musicarum Latinarum TML. Jacobs School of Music, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA, Boethii De institutione arithmetica.
Nota bene 1 : This study examines the 5 oldest known manuscripts, all from the 9th century, containing the Boehtii De institutione arithmetica libri duo.
This very comprehensive article is divided into seven distincts sections: 1 Historical Study of the treatise Boethii De institutione arithmetica libri duo 2 Proto-philological study and princeps critical edition of the glosses at the end of the Prologue 3 Critical glossary of Latin Stenography entries 4 Proto-philological palaeography: cross-reference signs 5 Manuscript Catalogue 6 Notes 7 6 Plates, and furnishes a precise and thorough research tool for scholars, teachers, and students on the 5 oldest known manuscripts containing the treatise Boethii De institutione arithmetica libri duo.
Nota bene 2 : In this fundamental study on the Boethii De institutione arithmetica libri duo. Boethius Anicius Manlius Torquatus Severinus , De institutione musica libri quinque ; cf.
Leipzig, reprint: Hildesheim, Olms ; C. Fundamentals of Music. Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius. New Haven, ; C. Brisson Luc.
Lettres et sciences humaines. Jean Trouillard. Index des auteurs modernes, Analytical Index rerum. Index of important Greek terms.
Bibliographie analytique, index locorum. Sankt Augustin bei Bonn Academia Verlag , , pages, Hardcover, Format cm x cm that is to say a Format, whose absolute value, relative to the absolute Unity 1.
Band 2 Dixit Academia Verlag. The book was first published in and has been out of print for many years. Naddaf Gerard. Plato, the Myth Maker.
Chicago and London Chicago Univiversity Press LXVI pages. Platon Bbibliographie. Plato Bibliography Bibliographie Platonicienne Burnyeat Myles Fredric.
Graeser ed. Smiley ed. Butzer P. Karl der Grosse und sein Nachwirken. Mathematisches Wissen. Caiazzo Irene. Caiazzo, A. Sannino, Turnhout: Brepols , p.
Calcidius ca. Waszink, ed. Plato latinus IV , London Leiden, , 2nd edition: , p. From the Cercle of Alcuin to the School of Auxerre: Logiqic, Theology and Philosophy in the Early Middle Ages.
Cambridge G. Paris, , p. XLIV, , 1, p. Rome, ca. Illo Humphrey ed. Nota bene 1 : Le Timaeus Platonis et Commentarius are the sole known works of Calcidius that have come down to us.
They were known already as of the 6th century in Gaule and in Spain; and may also have been known to Alcuin of York, in the 8th century, and were cited later in the middle of the 9th century by John Scottus Eriugena in his Annotationes in Marcianum.
Mynors, Oxford, , 3rd edition , cf. Liber II, p. Mommsen, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Auctores antiquissimi. XII, Berlin, , p. Catullus ca.
Hermann , D. Iunii Iuvenalis Satirarum libri quinque accedit Suplicae satira. Leipzig Teubner , , cf. Satirae I, , p. Censorinus ca. Caerellium, accedit Anonymi cujusdam Epitoma disciplinarum Fragmentum Censorini.
Nicolas Sallmann, Leipzig Teubner Verlag , ; cf. Paris, , t. French annotated translation: Censorini De die natali. Paris Vrin , ; cf.
Fridericus Hultsch, Censorini de die natali liber ad Q. Leipzig Teubner Verlag , , cf. XI, XII De musica. De modulatione , p. Claghorn George S.
Den Haag Martinus Nijhoff , , cf. Dijkhuis Ben. Muziek bij de antieke Grieken. Deze documenten omvatten slechts fragmenten met een totaal aan ca. Van de muziek dat de tand des tijds heeft overleeft: drie hymnen van Mesomedes, enige korte instrumentale stukjes, het Seikilosliedje.
Het is anders gesteld met de muziektheorie, waarvan meer informatie is achtergebleven, vooral met name die van Aristoxenus 4e eeuw v.
Het mag duidelijk zijn, dat afwezigheid van melodische passages, de theorie feitelijk niet meer dan een dode letter is. De hoeveelheid materiaal is zodanig, dat er voldoende voorhanden is voor speculatie, doch te weinig voor onomstotelijke conclusies.
Dumbrill Richard J. The Archaeomusicology of the Ancient Near East. By the third millennium BC both pentatonic and heptatonic tunings were quantified throughout the entire tone gamut.
Richard J. Dumbrill has documented the massive empirical experience with strings and pipes that makes this early musicalization of the universe believable.
Ernest McClain [cf. McClain Ernest G. Prelude to the Song itself. York Beach Maine, USA , ]. The first is about the decipherment, translation and interpretation of the few theoretical cuneiform texts dating from the Old Babylonian period, about BC, to Neo Assyrian up to the mid first millennium BC.
Dumbrill undertakes comparative analyses and criticism of various interpretations having preceded his own and introduces new material.
The second part is about the Hurrian hymns, the earliest music ever written, circa BC, and are produced in their integrality.
Attempts to the interpretation of Hymn H. Each fragment of the collection is analyzed separately. The part concludes with statistical analyses attempting at the reconstruction of some Hurrian rules of composition.
The third part consists in the organology with relevant philology and is the largest collection of the Mesopotamian instrumentarium. The last part is a unique lexicon of all known Mesopotamian terminology, with quotation of texts in which the philology appears.
He was born in France where he studied classics, philology, music theory, interpretation, composition, etc. He resided some years in the medina of Fez in an old palace where he studied the nauba compositions and in the Middle East.
His passions include botany, mycology, cooking, fine wines, music, yachts, and words. Dumbrill is Professor at the Institute of Musical Research, School of Advanced Studies within the University of London.
He is the Founder and Director of ICONEA International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology , a research group of the Institute of Musical Research, School of Advanced Study, University of London, Senate House Malet Street London WC1E 7HU.
The Elements [ which constitute the philosophy of Geometry in 13 Books] , cf. Heiberg ed. Stamatis, Leipzig, , t. Mathiesen ed. V,7; ed. Galeni scripta minora.
Greene W. Scholia Platonica. Fredericus de Forest Allen, Ionnes Burnet, Carolus Pomeroy Parker; omnia recognita praefatione indicibusque instructa ed.
This scientific-pedagogical Lecture-Concert on the Carolingian Liberal Arts is fourfold. De quattuor disciplinis mathematicis, ed.
Jacques Fontaine, ed. Volume I, p. JAN Carolus von. Musici scriptores Graeci. Nota bene. This work brings together 9 treatises on the philosophy and theorie of Music, covering a period of 8 centuries as of the 4th century BCE.
At the end of the work, in Chapter X, on finds several carmina graecorum reliquiae i. Macrobius Ambrosius Theodosius 5th c.
Opera quae super sunt. New York Columbia University Press , ; Bruce C. Barker Befield. Essays presented to Richard W. A Survey of the Latin Classics.
Oxford, reprint , p. James Willis. Engelbrecht, in Corpus scriptorum ecclesiaticorum latinorum. XI, , cf. II, 8, p. Ilsetraut Hadot.
Hadot, op. Hadot, p. Martianus Minneus Felix Capella 5th century, a. James Willis, Martianus Felix Capella, De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii.
Eyssenhardt, Martiani Minnei Felicis Capellae De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii libri VIIII. MARTIN Thomas-Henri. Notices on Atlantide, on the World Soul, etc.
Volume 1. Scholia Platonica…. Fonds grec. Mathiesen Thomas J. Lincoln, Nebraska USA University of Nebraska Press , London UK, ISBN: , , xv — pages, cf.
York Beach Maine, USA , , cf. Testi e strumenti di letteratura greca antica, medievale e umanistica. Platonis Dialogi secundum Thrasylli tetralogias dispositi.
Hermann, vol. IV, Leipzig Teubner , , cf. Ziegler et H. Leipzig Teubner Verlag , , 8 volumes 1st edition , Greek text only ; cf.
Harvard University Press , Londres, ; cf. Heinemann, Loeb Classical Library, , 11 volumes Greek text with English translation ; cf. Hubert et H.
Drexler eds. Fascicule 1: Leipzig Teubner Verlag , , p. XIII-1, English translation by H. Cherniss, Cambridge, Mass. Harvard University Press , ; cf.
Bernardakis ed. Leipzig Teubner Verlag , , p. Lasserre, Plutarque, de la musique. Loeb Classical Library, Moralia. XIV, English translation by B.
Einarson et P. Dod eds. Minio-Paluello, ed. Minio-Paluello, B. Dod, eds. Dod, ed. Commentaria in Aristotelem Graeca. CAG , Berlin, vol. Strange, Porphyry, On Aristotle Categories.
I, Chapter 6, p. Syntaxis mathematica. I, pars I libros, I-VI continens , Leipzig Teubner Verlag , , vol.
Venetus Marcianus, gr. Volume 2, Chapter 19, p. Thomas J. XLIIII-LXIV, p. Teeuwen Mariken. Harmony and the Music of the Spheres.
The Ars Musica in Ninth-Century Commentaries on Martianus Capella. Carolingian scholars produced a wealth of commentaries and glosses, which survived hidden in the margins of a remarkably large number of manuscripts.
In the first part of the book, the manuscript tradition of the oldest commentary is taken under scrutiny, and the Carolingian reception of ancient knowledge on the subject of music is opened up and analyzed.
Its relevance for the formation of a new, medieval music theory is evaluated. In the second part, the relevant parts of the oldest commentary are edited on the basis of eight ninth-century manuscripts.
Carolingian Scholarship and Martianus Capella. It is well known that the Carolingian royal family inspired and promoted a cultural revival of great consequence.
The courts of Charlemagne and his successors welcomed lively gatherings of scholars who avidly pursued knowledge and learning, while education became a booming business in the great monastic centres, which were under the protection of the royal family.
Scholarly emphasis was placed upon Latin language, religion, and liturgy, but the works of classical and late antique authors were collected, studied, and commented upon with similar zeal.
De natura mundi et animae. Waterfield Robin. Timaeus and Critias. Zeyl Donald J. Plato: Timaeus. English translation, Indianapolis, Indiana, Cambridge, Massachusetts Hackett Publishing Co.
Mohr, K. Sanders and B. Sattler eds. Albertson David. Nicholas of Cusa and the Legacy of Thierry of Chartres. Oxford Studes in Historical Theology , Oxford University Press, One of the neglected aspects of this tradition was the development of Christian Neopythagoreanism in Late Antiquity and its rebirth in the twelfth century with the early scholastic Thierry of Chartres.
Mathematical Theologies is a ground-breaking study in the history of Western theology and a major new interpretation of Cusanus.
David Albertson is a member of Academia. Angotti Claire. Brinzei Monica.Christine Ferguson, director of HealthSourceRI, vows to work closely with small business owners to help them get affordable health care for their workers. And, it's going to be tough Fernsehlotterie Gewonnen me to do, but I Touring Car Racing to learn to take a step back, or take the Enterprise mentality for new gadgets. Dann wird sie auch eher bereit sein, sich im Laufe des Abends von ihrem Oberteil zu verabschieden.