Nurture Definition: If you nurture something such as a young child or a young plant, you care for it while it | Bedeutung Deutsche Definition von. 'nurture'. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für nurture im Online-Wörterbuch donkeydigest.com (Deutschwörterbuch). Übersetzung für 'nurture' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen.
Definition Lead NurturingÜbersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für nurture im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Übersetzung für 'nurture' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "nurture" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen.
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In , Calvin Hall suggested that the dichotomy opposing nature to nurture is ultimately fruitless. In African Genesis and The Territorial Imperative , Robert Ardrey argues for innate attributes of human nature, especially concerning territoriality.
Desmond Morris in The Naked Ape expresses similar views. Organised opposition to Montagu's kind of purist "blank-slatism" began to pick up in the s, notably led by E.
Wilson On Human Nature , The tool of twin studies was developed as a research design intended to exclude all confounders based on inherited behavioral traits.
Twin studies established that there was, in many cases, a significant heritable component. Rather, it was purist behaviorism that was gradually replaced by the now-predominant view that both kinds of factors usually contribute to a given trait, anecdotally phrased by Donald Hebb as an answer to the question "which, nature or nurture, contributes more to personality?
In a comparable avenue of research, anthropologist Donald Brown in the s surveyed hundreds of anthropological studies from around the world and collected a set of cultural universals.
He identified approximately such features, coming to the conclusion there is indeed a "universal human nature", and that these features point to what that universal human nature is.
At the height of the controversy, during the s to s, the debate was highly ideologised. If biological determinism is a weapon in the struggle between classes, then the universities are weapons factories, and their teaching and research faculties are the engineers, designers, and production workers.
The authors deny this, requesting that evolutionary inclinations be discarded in ethical and political discussions regardless of whether they exist or not.
Heritability studies became much easier to perform, and hence much more numerous, with the advances of genetic studies during the s.
By the late s, an overwhelming amount of evidence had accumulated that amounts to a refutation of the extreme forms of "blank-slatism" advocated by Watson or Montagu.
This revised state of affairs was summarized in books aimed at a popular audience from the late s. The book became a best-seller, and was instrumental in bringing to the attention of a wider public the paradigm shift away from the behaviourist purism of the s to s that had taken place over the preceding decades.
Pinker portrays the adherence to pure blank-slatism as an ideological dogma linked to two other dogmas found in the dominant view of human nature in the 20th century:.
Pinker argues that all three dogmas were held onto for an extended period even in the face of evidence because they were seen as desirable in the sense that if any human trait is purely conditioned by culture, any undesired trait such as crime or aggression may be engineered away by purely cultural political means.
Pinker focuses on reasons he assumes were responsible for unduly repressing evidence to the contrary, notably the fear of imagined or projected political or ideological consequences.
It is important to note that the term heritability refers only to the degree of genetic variation between people on a trait.
It does not refer to the degree to which a trait of a particular individual is due to environmental or genetic factors. The traits of an individual are always a complex interweaving of both.
In contrast, the "heritability index" statistically quantifies the extent to which variation between individuals on a trait is due to variation in the genes those individuals carry.
In animals where breeding and environments can be controlled experimentally, heritability can be determined relatively easily.
Such experiments would be unethical for human research. This problem can be overcome by finding existing populations of humans that reflect the experimental setting the researcher wishes to create.
One way to determine the contribution of genes and environment to a trait is to study twins. The twins share identical genes, but different family environments.
Twins reared apart are not assigned at random to foster or adoptive parents. In another kind of twin study, identical twins reared together who share family environment and genes are compared to fraternal twins reared together who also share family environment but only share half their genes.
Another condition that permits the disassociation of genes and environment is adoption. In one kind of adoption study , biological siblings reared together who share the same family environment and half their genes are compared to adoptive siblings who share their family environment but none of their genes.
In many cases, it has been found that genes make a substantial contribution, including psychological traits such as intelligence and personality.
Examples of low, medium, and high heritability traits include:. Twin and adoption studies have their methodological limits.
For example, both are limited to the range of environments and genes which they sample. Almost all of these studies are conducted in Western countries, and therefore cannot necessarily be extrapolated globally to include non-western populations.
Additionally, both types of studies depend on particular assumptions, such as the equal environments assumption in the case of twin studies, and the lack of pre-adoptive effects in the case of adoption studies.
Since the definition of "nature" in this context is tied to "heritability", the definition of "nurture" has consequently become very wide, including any type of causality that is not heritable.
The term has thus moved away from its original connotation of "cultural influences" to include all effects of the environment, including; indeed, a substantial source of environmental input to human nature may arise from stochastic variations in prenatal development and is thus in no sense of the term "cultural".
Many properties of the brain are genetically organized, and don't depend on information coming in from the senses. The interactions of genes with environment, called gene—environment interactions , are another component of the nature—nurture debate.
A classic example of gene—environment interaction is the ability of a diet low in the amino acid phenylalanine to partially suppress the genetic disease phenylketonuria.
Yet another complication to the nature—nurture debate is the existence of gene—environment correlations. These correlations indicate that individuals with certain genotypes are more likely to find themselves in certain environments.
Thus, it appears that genes can shape the selection or creation of environments. Even using experiments like those described above, it can be very difficult to determine convincingly the relative contribution of genes and environment.
Heritability refers to the origins of differences between people. Individual development, even of highly heritable traits, such as eye color, depends on a range of environmental factors, from the other genes in the organism, to physical variables such as temperature, oxygen levels etc.
The variability of trait can be meaningfully spoken of as being due in certain proportions to genetic differences "nature" , or environments "nurture".
For highly penetrant Mendelian genetic disorders such as Huntington's disease virtually all the incidence of the disease is due to genetic differences.
Huntington's animal models live much longer or shorter lives depending on how they are cared for. At the other extreme, traits such as native language are environmentally determined: linguists have found that any child if capable of learning a language at all can learn any human language with equal facility.
At a molecular level, genes interact with signals from other genes and from the environment. While there are many thousands of single-gene-locus traits, so-called complex traits are due to the additive effects of many often hundreds of small gene effects.
A good example of this is height, where variance appears to be spread across many hundreds of loci. Extreme genetic or environmental conditions can predominate in rare circumstances—if a child is born mute due to a genetic mutation , it will not learn to speak any language regardless of the environment; similarly, someone who is practically certain to eventually develop Huntington's disease according to their genotype may die in an unrelated accident an environmental event long before the disease will manifest itself.
Steven Pinker likewise described several examples:  . But traits that reflect the underlying talents and temperaments—how proficient with language a person is, how religious, how liberal or conservative—are partially heritable.
When traits are determined by a complex interaction of genotype and environment it is possible to measure the heritability of a trait within a population.
However, many non-scientists who encounter a report of a trait having a certain percentage heritability imagine non-interactional, additive contributions of genes and environment to the trait.
As an analogy, some laypeople may think of the degree of a trait being made up of two "buckets," genes and environment, each able to hold a certain capacity of the trait.
But even for intermediate heritabilities, a trait is always shaped by both genetic dispositions and the environments in which people develop, merely with greater and lesser plasticities associated with these heritability measures.
Heritability measures always refer to the degree of variation between individuals in a population. That is, as these statistics cannot be applied at the level of the individual, it would be incorrect to say that while the heritability index of personality is about 0.
To help to understand this, imagine that all humans were genetic clones. The heritability index for all traits would be zero all variability between clonal individuals must be due to environmental factors.
And, contrary to erroneous interpretations of the heritability index, as societies become more egalitarian everyone has more similar experiences the heritability index goes up as environments become more similar, variability between individuals is due more to genetic factors.
One should also take into account the fact that the variables of heritability and environmentality are not precise and vary within a chosen population and across cultures.
It would be more accurate to state that the degree of heritability and environmentality is measured in its reference to a particular phenotype in a chosen group of a population in a given period of time.
The accuracy of the calculations is further hindered by the number of coefficients taken into consideration, age being one such variable.
The display of the influence of heritability and environmentality differs drastically across age groups: the older the studied age is, the more noticeable the heritability factor becomes, the younger the test subjects are, the more likely it is to show signs of strong influence of the environmental factors.
A study conducted by T. Bouchard, Jr. The results shown have been important evidence against the importance of environment when determining, happiness, for example.
In the Minnesota study of twins reared apart, it was actually found that there was higher correlation for monozygotic twins reared apart 0.
Also, highlighting the importance of genes, these correlations found much higher correlation among monozygotic than dizygotic twins that had a correlation of 0.
Some have pointed out that environmental inputs affect the expression of genes. Traits may be considered to be adaptations such as the umbilical cord , byproducts of adaptations the belly button or due to random variation convex or concave belly button shape.
For example, the rewarding sweet taste of sugar and the pain of bodily injury are obligate psychological adaptations—typical environmental variability during development does not much affect their operation.
On the other hand, facultative adaptations are somewhat like "if-then" statements. The attachment style of adults, for example, a "secure attachment style," the propensity to develop close, trusting bonds with others is proposed to be conditional on whether an individual's early childhood caregivers could be trusted to provide reliable assistance and attention.
An example of a facultative physiological adaptation is tanning of skin on exposure to sunlight to prevent skin damage. Facultative social adaptation have also been proposed.
For example, whether a society is warlike or peaceful has been proposed to be conditional on how much collective threat that society is experiencing .
Quantitative studies of heritable traits throw light on the question. English So, this is a model that pretty much any organization could use to try and nurture its own cycle of crowd-accelerated innovation.
English That is not in itself so bad, because having a Community statute may nurture the idea that Parliament represents one people. English So the EU's relationship with Canada is extremely important and we should do everything possible to nurture it.
English If jobs are to be created, as they hopefully will be by many small businesses, it will be because we nurture innovation and entreprenurial activity.
More by bab. English nursery rhyme nursery school nurseryman nurses nursing nursing clinic nursing home nursing problems nursing staff nurturance to nurture nut nut butter nutcase nutcracker nuthatch nutmeg nutraceutical nutria nutrients nutriment In the English-Chinese dictionary you will find more translations.
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Phrases Speak like a native Useful phrases translated from English into 28 languages. Hangman Hangman Fancy a game?
Or learning new words is more your thing? Why not have a go at them together! Let's stay in touch. Beispiele aus dem Internet nicht von der PONS Redaktion geprüft For the viewer it implies a meandering process of movement and recognition.
A state of twilight is nurtured where contours disappear and the lights of the night evoke their own claviature of seeing. Für den Betrachtenden bedeutet diese Vorgabe im Verortungsprozess des Auges einmal mehr ein mäanderndes Bewegungsmotiv.
Dämmerung ist aufgezogen , Konturen verschwimmen und die Lichter der Nacht evozieren eine eigene Klaviatur des Sehens. A certain laboratory strain of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has white eyes.
If the surrounding temperature of the embryos, which are normally nurtured at 25 degrees Celsius, is briefly raised to 37 degrees Celsius, the flies later hatch with red eyes.
If these flies are again crossed, the following generations are partly red-eyed — without further temperature treatment — even though only white-eyed flies are expected according to the rules of genetics.
Wird die Umgebungstemperatur der Embryonen, die normalerweise bei 25 Grad Celsius aufgezogen werden, für kurze Zeit auf 37 Grad Celsius erhöht, haben die später schlüpfenden Fliegen rote Augen.
Kreuzt man diese Fliegen wieder untereinander, ist in den folgenden Generationen — ohne weitere Wärmebehandlung — ein Teil der Nachkommen wieder rotäugig, obwohl nach den Regeln der Genetik nur weissäugige Fliegen erwartet werden.
Adopt your very own baby kitten and help him grow into a fully grown cat. Take good care of your virtual pet and make him happy - feed him, play with him and nurture him!
Passe gut auf dein virtuelles Haustier auf und mache es froh — füttere es, spiele mit ihm und ziehe es auf! And we want no patrons pampering and nurturing a club, allowing him things like high performance centers for youths from one second to the other, things other clubs have to put so much effort in.
If the sound attack in Hoffenheim really was the work of two overeager men, it would not make things better though. Wir wollen keine Klubs aus der Retorte.
Sollte die Schall-Attacke in Hoffenheim wirklich das Werk zweier übereifriger Männer gewesen sein, macht das die Sache im Übrigen auch nicht besser.
Using found pieces of scrap wood, Washburn has created a seemingly amorphous roof surface inside which a conveyor belt loop is located. The conveyor belt loop transports these plots to different stations where they receive light and water, before finally being taken out and serving as the sod roof of the factory, where they will begin to wilt and atrophy.
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